Immigration to the United States Today

Immigration to the United States Today

Ink from ash, powder from lead white and mulberry instead of blush – it was such a means on the dressing tables of beauties of different times. What women and even men did not use to bleach their face, make their eyelashes thicker or brown their cheeks! Mercury, coal, flour, and even crocodile litter were used in the process.

Invented powder, like almost all other cosmetics, in ancient Egypt. However, before that, residents of different parts of the world covered their faces with white powder – it was believed that this protects against evil spirits. Over time, the value of powder became more peaceful, it was used for beauty. Slaves and unskilled workers, day and night in the sun, were incredibly dark. And in order to visually emphasize their belonging to the aristocracy, representatives of the higher circles actively powdered. In her treatise “On medicines for the face,” Cleopatra herself mentioned powder made from the litter of the crocodile. Representatives of non-royal blood used fried in.

powder white clay.

The Romans readily accepted the Egyptian habit of powdering. Moreover, they also borrowed the invention of the Greeks – a mixture of chalk and leaden whites, which were expensive and very toxic. Toxic powder has been actively used for several centuries, right up to the Renaissance. The Roman poet Catullus said that a woman without powder is like food without salt. Approximately the same opinion was expressed by the Chinese: “It’s better to admire a beauty after a morning toilet after she powdered her face.” In the East, a powder of rice was used. With her help, theatrical actors depicted absolutely different expressions on their faces. And geisha bleached her face to hide her age.

In the XIV century, the Italians decided not to part for a moment with the miracle powder and began to carry miniature powder boxes. Queen Elizabeth of England, who ruled in the second half of the sixteenth century, powdered her face so strongly that it turned out to be a real mask. I even had to draw blood vessels. In France, the king and courtiers went even further: they powdered not only faces, but also hair, and then wigs. Under Louis XIII, wigs from women’s hair were in fashion. Blondes were most valued, but they did not have enough for all. According to the king’s decree wearing light wigs could only representatives of the ruling dynasty. Then the court began to powder their dark hair intensively.

Powder on the face not only paid tribute to fashion, but also had a practical purpose. With her help, women concealed skin defects caused by ailments. Then the first appeared.

flies that are pasted on pimples or pockmarks. It came to the point that in Frankfurt am Main the mayor issued a decree according to which the husband could divorce his wife if he discovered the faulty appearance of the spouse skillfully hidden by her.

with the help of powder.

In Russia, powder was brought along with the fashion for wigs by Peter I. Following the aristocracy, the merchant women became powder. It ended with the fact that soldiers also had to wear powdered wigs in the army. The commander Alexander Suvorov only grumbled aside gruffly: “Powder is not gunpowder, the scythe is not a sword, I’m not a German, but a natural harem!” Before this girl, to look white, smeared her face with white, then went to the bath and tightly “steamed” them in skin. After the overthrow of the French monarchy in 1792, the powdered wigs went into oblivion, as well.

a healthy complexion came into fashion.

The “culprits” of the return of the fine powder were actresses Sarah Bernhard and Eleanor Duse. To hide skin defects, well visible in the bright light of the ramp, these divas thickly sprinkled their face with powder. Well, the audience tried to imitate the idols. At the beginning.

XX century in the composition of powder began to include talcum powder, which did not cause skin irritation, and lead was replaced with safe zinc oxide.

Coal on eyelashes.

More than a hundred years ago, in 1914, a New York pharmacist, Terry Williams, was very keen to help his sister make the eyelashes long and dark – the poor girl was in love with a handsome neighbor, but he stubbornly did not want to notice her. Careful brother mixed in his laboratory coal dust with petroleum jelly and offered the girl to try a black mixture for lengthening eyelashes. The invention was so successful that in the same year, his sister Mabel Williams made a proposal of the hand and heart. Today, a rare cosmetic company dares to say that mascara will lead a girl to a crown, but she is still one of the main components of makeup.

Mascara is the work of the ancient Egyptians. They were the first to guess with ivory sticks to apply burnt almonds, graphite or antimony on their eyelashes. It is interesting that this mixture should not emphasize the expressiveness of the eyes, but hide them. The Egyptians believed: the eyes are the mirror of the soul, and in order to protect the soul, one needs to hide the eyes behind the veil of eyelashes.

In the Renaissance, mascara again took its rightful place on the dressing table. They produced it at home, but instead of ash they relied on the ground shell of walnut. This ingredient was offered by Simonetta Vespucci, who also introduced the chocolate-colored eyelashes. In the time of Queen Victoria, mascara has receded into the background, giving way to castor oil. But already in 1880 she returned: light eyelashes began to be considered an inborn defect.

Mascara in the modern version was first invented by Eugene Rimmel, it was he who mixed the soot with Vaseline and placed the composition in a box. But at the beginning of the twentieth century, innovation was not appreciated: there was eyeliner in the course, and mascara was superfluous. When in the 20s a medium with a similar composition introduced Terry Williams, it gained popularity among the silent film actresses. Greta Garbo, a Swede with white eyelashes, naturally became one of the first stars not to part with mascara. Actresses Marlene Dietrich and Bette Davis painted only the upper eyelashes, since the dyed-down lower in the light of the searchlights cast an unattractive shadow.

The production of carcass was put on stream, but the safety of this product was not much worried. So, in the mid-30’s there was not a single act with the rules for making cosmetic carcasses. Entrepreneurs often added aniline to it – an unsafe, but persistent color, which, if used regularly, could lead to blindness. In 1939, the entrepreneur Helena Rubinshtein, developing cosmetics for water gymnasts, came up with the formula of a water-resistant carcass that did not spread out in the rain and was heavily washed away. By the early 50’s, mascara was a bar of a mixture of waxes and dyes, which had to be moistened before applying the brush. And in 20 years it’s the same Rubinstein.

patented a comfortable round brush and a comfortable tube, which women still use.

A slight blush always attached femininity to the ladies, and pink cheeks attracted the looks of men. Not surprisingly, the blush has gained popularity quite quickly. It all started with Egyptian beauties, who put on the cheeks mulled berries mulberry. In Ancient Greece, rouge was created from beets or strawberries. There is a myth that the goddess Europe took the blush from Hera and after their use became so beautiful that she could seduce Zeus.

In the Middle Ages, popularity gained aristocratic pallor, and the blush was forgotten for a couple of centuries. She returned the powder for the cheeks to the dressing tables of Catherine de Medici: men and women began to blush their faces, sparing no pain. This trend reached Russia, where girls used beets and pressed berries, if there was not enough money for cosmetics, because the pale did not get married, considering them unhealthy and frail.

In the XVIII century, doctors shocked the women of fashion news that the rouge is poisonous. The doctors found out that many diseases began to arise because of the mercury in the composition of the rumen. It was decided to get rid of the dangerous ingredient, replacing it with wild saffron. It was used in ancient Egypt to paint bandages during mummification, and Japanese geishas made lipstick from it. Thanks to the new composition, it became possible to change the color of blush: only in 1779-1789 in France were created 34 of their species. In the XIX century in Europe, this cosmetic means began to be considered the lot of actors, and the coming fashion for naturalness allowed only a blush, achieved in a natural way: the girls clapped themselves on the cheeks before.

an exit to the guests.

Since blushes began to be used only on the stage, their consistency has changed. Powder blushers were created, which did not make make-up worse. In 1863, Alexander Bourgeois invented to sell them in beautiful boxes and added fragrant pink water there, as a result of the sale of rouge again took off. And the emergence of color cinematography finally spread the fashion for pink cheeks.

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